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Hydra i s
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Yes, hydra has a low tolerance for pollution. Since hydra cannot be found in contaminated water, they can be used as a biological indicator to rank toxicants on the level of a potential hazard. Their tentacles may extend much longer — some species of green hydra may measure about 5 cm to 20 cm when extended. The body of a hydra may retract while sensing a danger , making the organism appear shorter and rounded. Stentors are almost the largest single-celled ciliates and can grow up to 4 mm.
You can see the hydra is much bigger than stentors. A small hydra may look transparent in its tentacles and yellowish in its tube-like body. Hydra oligactis is brown; therefore, also known as the brown hydra Hydra viridissima is commonly called green hydra because of its distinctive color due to the symbiotic green algae Chlorella that live within its body.
Right: Hydra viridissima. Photo credit: Hydra oligactis , Hydra viridissima. Hydra has a tubular body with radial symmetry. The radial symmetry is also a shared feature of the phylum Cnidaria. You can see the body wall of a Hydra consisting of two layers of cells. Hydra has two main body layers. The outer layer is the epidermis like our skin which can secret a protective layer hydramacin against bacterial infection.
Respiration and excretion occur by diffusion through the surface of the epidermis. The inner layer is called the gastrodermis , which lines the stomach. Between the two layers is a gel-like substance called mesoglea. Modified from Vogg MC. The bottom end of a hydra is secured on the surface by a simple adhesive foot called the basal disc. Gland cells in the basal disc secrete a sticky fluid that accounts for its adhesive properties. At the free end of the body is a mouth opening hypostome surrounded by tentacles.
The mouth is connected to the body cavity. The prey captured by the tentacles will then be engulfed within the body cavity for digestion. Since hydra has only one opening, the waste after digestion will be discharged through the same mouth opening. Tentacles from 6 to 10 in number radiate outward from the rim of the mouth.
These tentacles can be greatly extended at the time of feeding or locomotion. Each tentacle is covered with highly specialized stinging cells called cnidocytes. Cnidocytes contain specialized structures called nematocysts , which look like miniature light bulbs with a coiled thread inside. Near the outer edge of the cnidocyte is a short hair, called a cnidocil. The cnidocil functions like a trigger to control the firing of a nematocyst. Upon contact with prey, the contents of the nematocyst are explosively discharged, firing a dart-like thread containing neurotoxins into whatever triggered the release.
These toxins can paralyze the prey. A cnidocyte fires a structure that contains the toxin from a characteristic subcellular organelle called a nematocyst. Left: a cnidocyte at the resting stage. Right: a fired cnidocyte. Hydra does not have a recognizable brain or true muscles, but hydra has a primitive nervous system called the nerve net. Nerve nets connect sensory photoreceptors light-sensitive and touch-sensitive nerve cells located in the body wall and tentacles.
This simple nervous system helps hydra quickly respond to all kinds of stimuli. You can see the hydra has a network-like nerve system. Photo credit: ck Photo credit: U Heidelberg. Hydras mainly feed on aquatic invertebrates such as Daphnia. While feeding, Hydras extend their body to maximum length and then slowly extend their tentacles.
Once fully extended can be four to five times the length of the body , the tentacles are slowly maneuvered around, waiting for contact with suitable prey. Upon contact with prey, hundreds of nematocysts can fire their stings and neurotoxins at the same time. This can paralyze the prey.
Within minutes, the tentacles can surround the prey and move the prey into the opened mouth aperture. The prey will then be engulfed within the body cavity for digestion. Hydra can stretch its body wall considerably in order to digest prey more than twice its size. Since hydra has no anal pore, the indigestible remains of the prey will be discharged through the mouth aperture via contractions. The mouth disappears after it eats, meaning a hydra regrow a new mouth for each bite.
Is that amazing? Some Hydra species like Hydra viridissima can form a symbiotic relationship with green algae Chlorella living within its body. Hydra provides a safe place to live, and green algae synthesize food by photosynthesis in return.
This symbiosis gives a significant advantage to hydras when environmental conditions change food is scarce. In the absence of prey, a green hydra may still be able to survive for about 3 months using nutrients produced through photosynthesis. This allows the hydra to tolerate starvation.
Green hydra Hydra viridissima and its symbiotic algae Chlorella sp. Modified from Marinespecies. Typically, a hydra remains attached by the basal disc to some suitable object in the water. However, occasionally hydra can move quite readily, especially when hunting.
Looping is the most common type of walking similar to the movement of a caterpillar. They do this by bending over and attaching themselves to the surface with their mouth and tentacles and then relocating their foot. In somersaulting meaning rolling forward , the hydra extends its body and bends to one side to place its tentacles on the surface. The basal disc is free from its attachment, and the animal stands on its tentacles. The body is then extended and bent to place the basal disc on the surface, the tentacles loosen their hold, and the animal regains an upright position.
These movements are repeated, and the hydra moves from place to place. Hydra can occasionally move in other ways see image below. Interestingly, a hydra can generate a gas bubble from its foot and then anchor itself on the bubble for floating, like riding a hot air balloon! Hydra can reproduce both asexually and sexually.
The choice of reproduction depends on the conditions where they live. Asexual reproduction occurs under favorable environmental conditions to allow a rapid expansion of the hydra population. Asexual reproduction only requires one parent. During budding, a small bud develops near the basal part of the parent hydra through repeated mitotic cell division.
These new cells grow into a mini version of hydra with smaller body, mouth, and tentacles. Once the bud is fully developed, it ultimately detaches from the parent and becomes an independent organism. Given that the offspring is produced through mitosis division, it is genetically identical to its parent.
Hera, wife of Zeus, adopted the Hydra when it was a baby. She raised the creature with the intent of using it to destroy Heracles—finding a home for it, protecting it from harm, and nurturing its destructive impulses. The monster very nearly killed the hero. He only managed to kill it with the help of his quick-witted nephew, Iolaus. As she watched the golden boy grow into a young Greek hero, she grew angrier and angrier still. When an oracle told Heracles that, to gain immortality, he must complete twelve impossible tasks, Hera saw a golden opportunity to get rid of the boy once and for all.
He crept to the cave around the Spring of Amymone, where the monster slept, and shot fiery arrows into it. After a few areas, the Hydra charged out of the cave, ready to tear its assailant to shreds. But Heracles was ready too. Though the monster shrieked in pain, the injuries were far from life-threatening.
In fact, they only made the Hydra stronger, as several new heads grew to replace each one that was lost. After a few minutes of bloody battle, Heracles realized that he could never defeat the Hydra alone. The cauterized stumps prevented knew heads from growing. When Hera saw that Heracles and Iolaus had found a way to kill her monster, she was so angry that she sent a giant crab to distract Heracles. He crushed this under his foot. He cut this off with a golden sword, given to him by Athena, and buried it under a huge rock.
Despite the fact that he had slaughtered the horrible Hydra, some people claimed that Heracles had not completed the task because he had asked Iolaus for help. A centaur named Nessus was one of the enemies who Heracles killed with his poisonous arrows.
Originally, the serpent had six heads, and none of them regenerated, but as the story grew in fame, the monster grew in horror. Interestingly, the Hydra—an unnatural creature—has made a name for itself in the natural sciences. Sign in.
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